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When Can You Omit "that"? 「That」は必要がある場合

When Can You Omit "that"? 「That」は必要がある場合

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「That」は必要がある場合

この問題がとてもめちゃくちゃですよ。始めに2つの「that」の使い方がある: 関係詞と接続詞です。

関係詞の「that
that」ほ関係詞の場合、この問題は分かりやすいです。

1.        that」は主語の場合、いつも「that」がいります。

2.        that」は目的語の場合、「that」を使わなくてもいいです。実は、使わないことのほうがいいです。

(o) He is the man that lives next door to us.
(x) He is the man lives next door to us.
(o) All that glitters is not gold.
(x) All glitters is not gold.
(o) The man that you spoke to yesterday is my teacher.
(o) The man you spoke to yesterday is my teacher.

 

接続詞の「that

1.        名詞語句「that」は動詞の目的語の場合
tell」、「hear」、「believe」、「wish」、「know」などの「ソフト」動詞がある文章で、ほとんどに「that」を使わないです。しかし、「confirm」、「recognize」、「announce」などの「ハード」動詞は主節の文章で「that」を使わない場合は珍しいです。
(o) I know that you are my friend.
(o) I know you are my friend.
(o) She recognized that she was wrong.
(?) She recognized she was wrong.

       受け身系の文章で「that」を使わない場合は珍しいです。
(o) We are informed that the midterm exam has been postponed.
(x) We are informed the midterm exam has been postponed.

       there」がある文章で「that」を使わない場合は自然です
(?) I don't think that there'll be time to visit the museum.
(o) I don't think there'll be time to visit the museum.

       2つの従属節は動詞の後である文章で2番目の節は従属節が分かるために2番目の「that」は必ずに必要があります。
(o) They knew he had no gun but that he pretended to have one.
(x) They knew he had no gun but he pretended to have one.

       従属節の初めての言葉は副詞ではない場合、副詞は従属節の部分を分かるために「that」がいります。
(o) They knew that in those days people had been very poor in that area.
(x) They knew in those days people had been very poor in that area.

2.        名詞語句「that」は主語の場合
名詞語句「that」節は主節の主語のとき、絶対「that」が必要があります。
(o) That your brother is a bore is undeniable.
(x) Your brother is a bore is undeniable.

3.        名詞語句「that」節は虚辞「it」がある文章の場合
it is that …」の文章で非公式のことによく「that」を使わないです。
(o) It's odd that he didn't know it.
(o) It's odd he didn't know it.

4.        名詞語句「that」節は補語の場合
that」節は主節の補語のことで非公式のことによく「that」を使わないです。
(o) It seems that the baby is asleep.
(o) It seems the baby is asleep.
(o) The truth is that he didn't know it.
(o) The truth is he didn't know it.

5.        名詞語句「that」節は名詞の同格語句の場合
that」節は名詞の同格語句の場合、必ずに「that」がいります。
(o) The belief that rates will rise soon is making everyone panic.
(x) The belief rates will rise soon is making everyone panic.

6.        名詞語句「that」節は前置詞の場合
that」節は前置詞のとき、たいてい「that」は必要があるけど、「~ except that …」の文章で「that」がいりません。
    (o) He resembles his father in that he is fond of music.
    (x) He resembles his father in he is fond of music..
    (o) I forgot everything except that I wanted to go home.
    (o) I forgot everything except I wanted to go home.

7.        副詞語句「that」節
such that」と「in order that」の「that」は必要があります。「so that」のは非公式のことによく「that」を使わないです。
(o) Diana was such a pretty woman that everyone loved her.
(x) Diana was such a pretty woman everyone loved her.
(o) The hardness of diamond is such that it cuts glass.
(x) The hardness of diamond is such it cuts glass.
(o) She studies hard in order that she will pass the exam.
(x) She studies hard in order she will pass the coming exam.
(o) She studies hard so that she will pass the coming exam.
(o) She studies hard so she will pass the coming exam.
(o) She studied hard, so that she passed the exam.
(o) She studies hard, so she passed the exam.     
(o) She studied so hard that she passed the exam.
(o) She studies so hard she passed the exam.

8.        that」節は形容詞の補語の場合
that」節は形容詞の補語のとき、ほとんど「that」がいらないです。しかし、あまり言わないが、書けることの「ハード」形容詞を使う文章で「that」を使わない場合は珍しいです。
(o) I am happy that she accepted my proposal.
(o) I'm happy she accepted my proposal.
(o) I'm surprised that she accepted my proposal.
(?) I'm surprised she accepted my proposal.
(o) I am sure that she will accept my proposal.
(o) I'm sure she'll accept my proposal.
(o) I am afraid that she won't accept my proposal.
(o) I'm afraid she won't accept my proposal.
(o) She is anxious that her son (should) succeed.
(?) She is anxious her son (should) succeed.


When Can You Omit "that"?

The issue you are asking is really a messy one. First of all, please know there are two sorts of sub clauses led by "that": relative clauses and conjunctive clauses.

Relative that  
In the case 'that' is a relative, the problem is rather easy. [1] When "that" stands as the subject in a sub clause, never omit 'that'. [2] When "that" stands as the object in a sub clause, you can omit 'that' and the omission is even preferable.
       (o) He is the man that lives next door to us.
       (x) He is the man lives next door to us.
       (o) All that glitters is not gold.
       (x) All glitters is not gold.
       (o) The man that you spoke to yesterday is my teacher.
       (o) The man you spoke to yesterday is my teacher.

Conjunctive that
(1) Nominal that-clause as the object of a verb
When conjunctive that-clauses are used as the object of a 'soft' verb like 'tell', 'hear', 'believe', 'wish', 'know', etc., 'that' omission is quite common. But when the main clause verb is a 'hard' verb like 'confirm', 'recognize', 'announce', 'inform', etc., that omission is rather rare.
      (o) I know that you are my friend.
      (o) I know you are my friend.
      (o) She recognized that she was wrong.
      (?) She recognized she was wrong.
   [1] That omission is rare when the sub clause is in passive constructs.
      (o) We are informed that the midterm exam has been postponed.
      (x) We are informed the midterm exam has been postponed.
   [2] That omission is natural when the sub clause is a 'there' construct.
      (?) I don't think that there'll be time to visit the museum.
      (o) I don't think there'll be time to visit the museum.
   [3] When two sub clauses coordinately follow a verb, the omission of the second 'that' should be avoided to make it clear that the second sub clause is a subordinate clause.
     (o) They knew he had no gun but that he pretended to have one.
     (x) They knew he had no gun but he pretended to have one.
   [4] That omission should be avoided when the sub clause does not start with an adverbial to make it clear that the adverbial belongs to the sub clause. 
     (o) They knew that in those days people had been very poor in that area.
     (x) They knew in those days people had been very poor in that area.
(2) Nominal that-clause as a subject
When a nominal that-clause stands as the subject of a main clause, 'that' can never be omitted.
     (o) That your brother is a bore is undeniable.
     (x) Your brother is a bore is undeniable.
(3) Nominal that-clause in 'expletive it' constructions
In the construction of <it is … that …>, 'that' is often omitted in informal speech.
     (o) It's odd that he didn't know it.
     (o) It's odd he didn't know it.
(4) Nominal that-clause as a complement
When a that-clause is used as a complement in a main clause, 'that' is often omitted in informal speech.
     (o) It seems that the baby is asleep.
     (o) It seems the baby is asleep.
     (o) The truth is that he didn't know it.
     (o) The truth is he didn't know it.
(5) Nominal that-clause as an appositive to a noun
When a that-clause is used as an appositive to a noun, 'that' cannot be omitted.
     (o) The belief that rates will rise soon is making everyone panic.
     (x) The belief rates will rise soon is making everyone panic.
(6) Nominal that-clause as a prepositional object
When a that-clause is used as the object of a preposition, 'that' usually cannot be omitted. But 'that' in <except that> can be omitted.
    (o) He resembles his father in that he is fond of music.
    (x) He resembles his father in he is fond of music..
    (o) I forgot everything except that I wanted to go home.
    (o) I forgot everything except I wanted to go home.
(7) Adverbial that-clauses
The 'that' in <such that> and <in order that> cannot be omitted. The 'that' in <so that> is often omitted in informal speech. 
    (o) Diana was such a pretty woman that everyone loved her.
    (x) Diana was such a pretty woman everyone loved her.
    (o) The hardness of diamond is such that it cuts glass.
    (x) The hardness of diamond is such it cuts glass.
    (o) She studies hard in order that she will pass the exam.
    (x) She studies hard in order she will pass the coming exam.
    (o) She studies hard so that she will pass the coming exam.
    (o) She studies hard so she will pass the coming exam.
    (o) She studied hard, so that she passed the exam.
    (o) She studies hard, so she passed the exam.     
    (o) She studied so hard that she passed the exam.
    (o) She studies so hard she passed the exam.
(8) That-clauses as adjective's complement.
When a that-clause is used as the complement of an adjective, 'that' mostly can be omitted. But in the case when the adjective is a 'hard' one (that is, not often used in speech),  that omission is rare.
    (o) I am happy that she accepted my proposal.
    (o) I'm happy she accepted my proposal.
    (o) I'm surprised that she accepted my proposal.
    (?) I'm surprised she accepted my proposal.
    (o) I am sure that she will accept my proposal.
    (o) I'm sure that she'll my proposal.
    (o) I am afraid that she won't accept my proposal.
    (o) I'm afraid she won't accept my proposal.
    (o) She is anxious that her son (should) succeed.
    (?) She is anxious her son (should) succeed.

 

Original post at http://www.englishforums.com/English/WhenCantWeOmitThat/bxqzx/Post.htm by paco.

Translated into Japanese by Trevor Menagh (jumex) ath http://www.trevreport.org/.

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