December 1st, 2005

The Holiday Season 休み季節

The Holiday Season


November and December are known as the holiday season in many western countries because there are many different holidays during these months like Thanksgiving, Hanukkah, Christmas, and New Years.
In the U.S., Thanksgiving is a time for family to get together and celebrate the beginnings of life for Europeans in America. The first Thanksgiving was a feast of thanks for the Indians for teaching Pilgrims how to grow food and survive the winter in America. Now we often gather together and have a big meal, usually serving turkey or ham as the main course.
Hanukkah is the eight day Jewish Festival of Lights. Long ago in Jerusalem, the Greeks made the Jews worship Greek Gods, but many Jews didn’t want to, so they fought the Greeks. After many years of fighting, the Jews beat the Greeks and returned to Jerusalem. When they came back they had a celebration and wanted to light the menorah (a candelabrum used to light the temple), but there was only enough oil for one night. Amazingly, the oil lasted for eight nights, so now we celebrate Hanukkah by lighting candles in a menorah every night for eight nights.
In Japan, especially in big cities, Christmas time is a time for love and dating. This is not the case in most western countries. In the West, Christmas, much like Thanksgiving, is a time for family and friends to come together and spend time with each other. Every country has different traditions, but the most common ones are the Christmas tree, opening presents, and a Christmas Eve dinner.
New Years is also very different in Western countries. Unlike Japan, New Years is a time for big parties with your friends. It is a night where you can do whatever you like and going on dates and to dances are very popular. You could say that in the West, Christmas is like a Japanese New Years, and New Years is like a Japanese Christmas.
Whatever you do this holiday season, make sure you have a good time doing it!

休み季節


感謝祭やハヌカーやクリスマスやお正月などのような休みがあるのでたくさんの西洋諸国で11月と12月は「休み季節」と言います。
アメリカで感謝祭は家族と一緒に昔のエウロパ人はアメリカに来る命がはじめることを祭ります。始めての感謝祭はインディアンはアメリカへ来たエウロパ人に食べ物を育ったり、寒い冬を生けたり、仕方を教えるの感謝する大きな夕食でした。このごろ、家族と一緒にたいてい七面鳥か豚肉がある大きな夕食を食べます。
ハヌカーは8日のユダヤ光祭。昔々、イェルザルムでギリシャ人はユダヤ人にギリシャの神様を崇拝させました。しかし、たくさんユダヤ人はギリシャの神様を崇拝したくなかったのでギリシャ人と戦争しました。何年後、ユダヤ人はギリシャ人に勝ったから、イェルザレムに帰りました。帰るとき、大きな祭がありました。メノラーと言う本枝の大燭台に火を付けたかったです。でも、油は少ないので、一晩だけ使えたけど、その油は奇跡的に8晩で使えました。そして、今、ハヌカーのために祭り方は8晩でメノラーのろうそくに火を付けます。
日本で、特に都会で、クリスマスは日付やラブラブの時間です。しかし、西洋諸国でそのことは全然違います。西洋諸国でクリスマスは感謝祭のような家族や友達と集める時間です。別な国は別なクリスマス伝統があるけど、一番普通なのはクリスマス木やプレゼントをあげることやクリスマスの前晩で特別な夕食を食べます。
西洋諸国でお正月も全然違います。日本と違い、お正月は友達と一緒に大きなパーティーがある時間です。その夜は何でもできるの時間です。日付に行くこととダンス・パーティーに行くことはとても人気です。西洋諸国でお正月は日本のクリスマスのようです。クリスマスはお正月のようです。
今年の安も季節でぜひ楽しい時間を過しましょう!

ワンポイント英会話



  • Happy Holidays! (ハッピー・ハロディズ!) 幸せな休み時間を過しましょう!

  • Merry Christmas! (メリー・クリスマス!) クリスマスおめでとう!

  • Happy Hanukkah! (ハッピー・ハヌカー) ハヌカーおめでとう!

  • Happy New Year! (ハッピー・ニュー・イエヤ) お正月おめでとう!

  • The Holiday Season is upon us! (ザ・ハロディ・シソン・イズ・アポン・アス!) 休み季節に来た!

When Can You Omit "that"? 「That」は必要がある場合

「That」は必要がある場合

この問題がとてもめちゃくちゃですよ。始めに2つの「that」の使い方がある: 関係詞と接続詞です。

関係詞の「that
that」ほ関係詞の場合、この問題は分かりやすいです。

1.        that」は主語の場合、いつも「that」がいります。

2.        that」は目的語の場合、「that」を使わなくてもいいです。実は、使わないことのほうがいいです。

(o) He is the man that lives next door to us.
(x) He is the man lives next door to us.
(o) All that glitters is not gold.
(x) All glitters is not gold.
(o) The man that you spoke to yesterday is my teacher.
(o) The man you spoke to yesterday is my teacher.

 

接続詞の「that

1.        名詞語句「that」は動詞の目的語の場合
tell」、「hear」、「believe」、「wish」、「know」などの「ソフト」動詞がある文章で、ほとんどに「that」を使わないです。しかし、「confirm」、「recognize」、「announce」などの「ハード」動詞は主節の文章で「that」を使わない場合は珍しいです。
(o) I know that you are my friend.
(o) I know you are my friend.
(o) She recognized that she was wrong.
(?) She recognized she was wrong.

       受け身系の文章で「that」を使わない場合は珍しいです。
(o) We are informed that the midterm exam has been postponed.
(x) We are informed the midterm exam has been postponed.

       there」がある文章で「that」を使わない場合は自然です
(?) I don't think that there'll be time to visit the museum.
(o) I don't think there'll be time to visit the museum.

       2つの従属節は動詞の後である文章で2番目の節は従属節が分かるために2番目の「that」は必ずに必要があります。
(o) They knew he had no gun but that he pretended to have one.
(x) They knew he had no gun but he pretended to have one.

       従属節の初めての言葉は副詞ではない場合、副詞は従属節の部分を分かるために「that」がいります。
(o) They knew that in those days people had been very poor in that area.
(x) They knew in those days people had been very poor in that area.

2.        名詞語句「that」は主語の場合
名詞語句「that」節は主節の主語のとき、絶対「that」が必要があります。
(o) That your brother is a bore is undeniable.
(x) Your brother is a bore is undeniable.

3.        名詞語句「that」節は虚辞「it」がある文章の場合
it is that …」の文章で非公式のことによく「that」を使わないです。
(o) It's odd that he didn't know it.
(o) It's odd he didn't know it.

4.        名詞語句「that」節は補語の場合
that」節は主節の補語のことで非公式のことによく「that」を使わないです。
(o) It seems that the baby is asleep.
(o) It seems the baby is asleep.
(o) The truth is that he didn't know it.
(o) The truth is he didn't know it.

5.        名詞語句「that」節は名詞の同格語句の場合
that」節は名詞の同格語句の場合、必ずに「that」がいります。
(o) The belief that rates will rise soon is making everyone panic.
(x) The belief rates will rise soon is making everyone panic.

6.        名詞語句「that」節は前置詞の場合
that」節は前置詞のとき、たいてい「that」は必要があるけど、「~ except that …」の文章で「that」がいりません。
    (o) He resembles his father in that he is fond of music.
    (x) He resembles his father in he is fond of music..
    (o) I forgot everything except that I wanted to go home.
    (o) I forgot everything except I wanted to go home.

7.        副詞語句「that」節
such that」と「in order that」の「that」は必要があります。「so that」のは非公式のことによく「that」を使わないです。
(o) Diana was such a pretty woman that everyone loved her.
(x) Diana was such a pretty woman everyone loved her.
(o) The hardness of diamond is such that it cuts glass.
(x) The hardness of diamond is such it cuts glass.
(o) She studies hard in order that she will pass the exam.
(x) She studies hard in order she will pass the coming exam.
(o) She studies hard so that she will pass the coming exam.
(o) She studies hard so she will pass the coming exam.
(o) She studied hard, so that she passed the exam.
(o) She studies hard, so she passed the exam.     
(o) She studied so hard that she passed the exam.
(o) She studies so hard she passed the exam.

8.        that」節は形容詞の補語の場合
that」節は形容詞の補語のとき、ほとんど「that」がいらないです。しかし、あまり言わないが、書けることの「ハード」形容詞を使う文章で「that」を使わない場合は珍しいです。
(o) I am happy that she accepted my proposal.
(o) I'm happy she accepted my proposal.
(o) I'm surprised that she accepted my proposal.
(?) I'm surprised she accepted my proposal.
(o) I am sure that she will accept my proposal.
(o) I'm sure she'll accept my proposal.
(o) I am afraid that she won't accept my proposal.
(o) I'm afraid she won't accept my proposal.
(o) She is anxious that her son (should) succeed.
(?) She is anxious her son (should) succeed.


When Can You Omit "that"?

The issue you are asking is really a messy one. First of all, please know there are two sorts of sub clauses led by "that": relative clauses and conjunctive clauses.

Relative that  
In the case 'that' is a relative, the problem is rather easy. [1] When "that" stands as the subject in a sub clause, never omit 'that'. [2] When "that" stands as the object in a sub clause, you can omit 'that' and the omission is even preferable.
       (o) He is the man that lives next door to us.
       (x) He is the man lives next door to us.
       (o) All that glitters is not gold.
       (x) All glitters is not gold.
       (o) The man that you spoke to yesterday is my teacher.
       (o) The man you spoke to yesterday is my teacher.

Conjunctive that
(1) Nominal that-clause as the object of a verb
When conjunctive that-clauses are used as the object of a 'soft' verb like 'tell', 'hear', 'believe', 'wish', 'know', etc., 'that' omission is quite common. But when the main clause verb is a 'hard' verb like 'confirm', 'recognize', 'announce', 'inform', etc., that omission is rather rare.
      (o) I know that you are my friend.
      (o) I know you are my friend.
      (o) She recognized that she was wrong.
      (?) She recognized she was wrong.
   [1] That omission is rare when the sub clause is in passive constructs.
      (o) We are informed that the midterm exam has been postponed.
      (x) We are informed the midterm exam has been postponed.
   [2] That omission is natural when the sub clause is a 'there' construct.
      (?) I don't think that there'll be time to visit the museum.
      (o) I don't think there'll be time to visit the museum.
   [3] When two sub clauses coordinately follow a verb, the omission of the second 'that' should be avoided to make it clear that the second sub clause is a subordinate clause.
     (o) They knew he had no gun but that he pretended to have one.
     (x) They knew he had no gun but he pretended to have one.
   [4] That omission should be avoided when the sub clause does not start with an adverbial to make it clear that the adverbial belongs to the sub clause. 
     (o) They knew that in those days people had been very poor in that area.
     (x) They knew in those days people had been very poor in that area.
(2) Nominal that-clause as a subject
When a nominal that-clause stands as the subject of a main clause, 'that' can never be omitted.
     (o) That your brother is a bore is undeniable.
     (x) Your brother is a bore is undeniable.
(3) Nominal that-clause in 'expletive it' constructions
In the construction of <it is … that …>, 'that' is often omitted in informal speech.
     (o) It's odd that he didn't know it.
     (o) It's odd he didn't know it.
(4) Nominal that-clause as a complement
When a that-clause is used as a complement in a main clause, 'that' is often omitted in informal speech.
     (o) It seems that the baby is asleep.
     (o) It seems the baby is asleep.
     (o) The truth is that he didn't know it.
     (o) The truth is he didn't know it.
(5) Nominal that-clause as an appositive to a noun
When a that-clause is used as an appositive to a noun, 'that' cannot be omitted.
     (o) The belief that rates will rise soon is making everyone panic.
     (x) The belief rates will rise soon is making everyone panic.
(6) Nominal that-clause as a prepositional object
When a that-clause is used as the object of a preposition, 'that' usually cannot be omitted. But 'that' in <except that> can be omitted.
    (o) He resembles his father in that he is fond of music.
    (x) He resembles his father in he is fond of music..
    (o) I forgot everything except that I wanted to go home.
    (o) I forgot everything except I wanted to go home.
(7) Adverbial that-clauses
The 'that' in <such that> and <in order that> cannot be omitted. The 'that' in <so that> is often omitted in informal speech. 
    (o) Diana was such a pretty woman that everyone loved her.
    (x) Diana was such a pretty woman everyone loved her.
    (o) The hardness of diamond is such that it cuts glass.
    (x) The hardness of diamond is such it cuts glass.
    (o) She studies hard in order that she will pass the exam.
    (x) She studies hard in order she will pass the coming exam.
    (o) She studies hard so that she will pass the coming exam.
    (o) She studies hard so she will pass the coming exam.
    (o) She studied hard, so that she passed the exam.
    (o) She studies hard, so she passed the exam.     
    (o) She studied so hard that she passed the exam.
    (o) She studies so hard she passed the exam.
(8) That-clauses as adjective's complement.
When a that-clause is used as the complement of an adjective, 'that' mostly can be omitted. But in the case when the adjective is a 'hard' one (that is, not often used in speech),  that omission is rare.
    (o) I am happy that she accepted my proposal.
    (o) I'm happy she accepted my proposal.
    (o) I'm surprised that she accepted my proposal.
    (?) I'm surprised she accepted my proposal.
    (o) I am sure that she will accept my proposal.
    (o) I'm sure that she'll my proposal.
    (o) I am afraid that she won't accept my proposal.
    (o) I'm afraid she won't accept my proposal.
    (o) She is anxious that her son (should) succeed.
    (?) She is anxious her son (should) succeed.

 

Original post at http://www.englishforums.com/English/WhenCantWeOmitThat/bxqzx/Post.htm by paco.

Translated into Japanese by Trevor Menagh (jumex) ath http://www.trevreport.org/.

Articles 記事

Journal for 2005-12-1 Thu..
Weather: Sunny Plan: Akagi JHS

Today was a busy day. I only had two classes, but I had other work to do, too. I wrote an article for the Iinan Town newsletter about the holiday season in Japanese and English. After that I translated an article on when it is OK to omit the word "that" from a sentence because the 8th graders are currently learning "I think that" and neither the other teachers or I know when you need to use the word "that." It is really complecated. If you have time please read them.

平成17年12月1日の日記
天気: 晴 行事: 赤来中

今日は忙しかった日でした。2つの授業だけを教えたが、他の仕事もありました。「休み季節」についていいなん広報のために記事を日本語と英語を書き込みました。その後で、「that」は必要がある場合の記事を翻訳しました。なぜなら、2年生は今さき「I think that ~」の「~と思う」表現を習っているが、僕でも先生方でも「that」がいらない場合が知らなかったですから。とても分かりにくいですよ。時間があれば、読んでください。

Today's Kanji
(今日の漢字)
Meaning (意味): sell

Chinese Reading (音読み):
Reading Romaji
バイbai
Japanese Reading (訓読み):
Reading Romaji
uru
れるureru
Vocabulary (単語):
Word Reading Romaji Translation
売るうるuruto sell
売れるうれるureruto be sold
売店ばいてんbaitenshop
売買ばいばいbaibaibuying and selling
売却ばいきゃくbaikyakusale
商売しょうばいshoubaitrade
発売中はつばいちゅうhatsubaichuuon sale now
販売はんばいhanbaisales
非売品ひばいひんhibaihinNot for sale


--
Trevor Lalish-Menagh
jumex@trevreport.org
www.trevreport.org
011-81-854-76-3021